Maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedure, also called sinus augmentation or sinus lift, is a surgical procedure performed by a dentist or a maxillofacial surgeon to increase bone amount and density in the maxillary sinus floor above the alveolar ridge of the upper jaw. The most common reason why a sinus augmentation is performed is to ensure the required place for dental implants placement. Particularly, where there are long term teeth loss without treatment or there are other reasons which leaded to the bone loss.
It may be recommended for patients who wants to replace teeth with dental implants in the maxillary arch when there is not enough amount of bone height to support the base of the implant. Between these cases are included:
Previous to the intervention, the elaboration of a good diagnosis is necessary and determines if the patient is a good candidate.
Panoramic X-ray is taken in order to map out the anatomical structures of the patient such as the sinuses and the upper jaw bone.
Also a computed tomography or CT scan is taken to measure the height and width of the sinuses and the maxillary bone.
Sinus lift lateral window approach is the most common technique to perform a sinus lift, after the incision in the gum, the gum tissue is pulled back. The soft tissue is flapped back to expose the underlying lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, then a window are cutted in the buccal cortex (the side towards the cheek), and the schneiderian membrane (sinus membrane) is exposed and lifted from the sinus floor to leave the space for bone graft material which is placed in the space in order to promote bone formation which takes between 3 to 6 months to become part of the patient’s natural sinus floor bone.
Sinus crestal approach technique is a surgical procedure for performing a crestal sinus lift, which provides 97% success rate, minimizing Schneiderian membrane perforation.
This technique starts with an initial drill to mark a position and to drill to the front of the inferior cortical wall. The inferior cortical wall and lift sinus membrane are drilled with reamers. After that, the inferior wall’s perforation may be checked by hanging the end of the depth gauge in the sinus wall. The carrier is filled with the bone graft and is inserted into sinus by turning slowly.
Sinus membrane pierced or ripped (Usually, the healing of the tearing takes between 3 to 6 months and very often grows back thicker and stronger)
Tissue or nerve damage
Oral antral fistula
Tilting or loosening of implants
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